Differential β-Arrestin-Dependent Conformational Signaling and Cellular Responses Revealed by Angiotensin Analogs.
1McGill University Health Center Research Institute, Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2B2, Canada.
The angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) and its octapeptide ligand, angiotensin II (AngII), engage multiple downstream signaling pathways, including those mediated by heterotrimeric guanosine triphosphate-binding proteins (G proteins) and those mediated by β-arrestin. Here, we examined AT1R-mediated Gα(q) and β-arrestin signaling with multiple AngII analogs bearing substitutions at position 8, which is critical for binding to the AT1R and its activation of G proteins. Using assays that discriminated between ligand-promoted recruitment of β-arrestin to the AT1R and its resulting conformational rearrangement, we extend the concept of biased signaling to include the analog's propensity to differentially promote conformational changes in β-arrestin, two responses that were differentially affected by distinct G protein-coupled receptor kinases. The efficacy of AngII analogs in activating extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 correlated with the stability of the complexes between β-arrestin and AT1R in endosomes, rather than with the extent of β-arrestin recruitment to the receptor. In vascular smooth muscle cells, the ligand-induced conformational changes in β-arrestin correlated with whether the ligand promoted β-arrestin-dependent migration or proliferation. Our data indicate that biased signaling not only occurs between G protein- and β-arrestin-mediated pathways but also occurred at the level of the AT1R and β-arrestin, such that different AngII analogs selectively engaged distinct β-arrestin conformations, which led to specific signaling events and cell responses.
Sci Signal 2012;5(221):ra33.
Pubmed ID: 22534132