Engagement of β-arrestin by transactivated insulin-like growth factor receptor is needed for V2 vasopressin receptor-stimulated ERK1/2 activation.
Institut de Recherche en Immunologie et Cancérologie, Département de Biochimie and Groupe de Recherche Universitaire sur le Médicament, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada H3C 3J7.
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been shown to activate the mitogen-activated protein kinases, ERK1/2, through both G protein-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Here, we describe a G protein-independent mechanism that unravels an unanticipated role for β-arrestins. Stimulation of the V2 vasopressin receptor (V2R) in cultured cells or in vivo in rat kidney medullar collecting ducts led to the activation of ERK1/2 through the metalloproteinase-mediated shedding of a factor activating the insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR). This process was found to be both Src- and β-arrestin-dependent. Whereas Src was found to act upstream of the metalloproteinase activation and be required for the release of the IGFR-activating factor, β-arrestins were found to act downstream of the IGFR transactivation. Unexpectedly, the engagement of β-arrestins by the IGFR but not by the V2R was needed to promote the vasopressin-stimulated ERK1/2 activation, indicating that a pool of β-arrestins distinct from those β-arrestins recruited to the V2R acts downstream of the receptor tyrosine kinase to activate ERK1/2. Such a dual site of action for β-arrestins helps explain the pleiotropic actions of this scaffolding protein. Given the role that V2R-stimulated ERK1/2 plays in kidney cell proliferation, this transactivation mechanism may have important implications for renal pathophysiology. Still, the role of β-arrestins downstream of a transactivation event is not limited to the V2R, because we observed a similar involvement for an unrelated GPCR (the platelet-activating factor receptor), indicating that it may be a general mechanism shared among GPCRs.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2012;109(17):E1028-37.
Pubmed ID: 22493236