The influence of tumor-host interactions in the stromal cell-derived factor-1/CXCR4 ligand/receptor axis in determining metastatic risk in breast cancer.
Department of Oncology, Lady Davis Institute, Sir Mortimer B Davis Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) may function to attract CXCR4-expressing cancer cells to metastatic organs. We have previously demonstrated that low plasma SDF-1, a host-derived marker, increases distant metastatic risk in breast cancer. We therefore hypothesized that tumors overexpressing the SDF-1 receptor CXCR4 have an enhanced ability to metastasize in patients with low plasma SDF-1 levels. In this study, we determined the prognostic significance of activated CXCR4, or phosphorylated CXCR4 (p-CXCR4), and CXCR7, another receptor for SDF-1. Immunohistochemistry was performed on a tissue microarray built using 237 samples from the same cohort of patients for which we measured plasma SDF-1 levels. We found that the prognostic value of p-CXCR4 expression (hazard ratio or HR, 3.95; P = 0.004) was superior to total CXCR4 expression (HR, 3.20; P = 0.03). The rate of breast cancer-specific mortality was much higher in patients with both high p-CXCR4 expression and low plasma SDF-1 levels (HR, 5.96; P < 0.001) than either low plasma SDF-1 (HR, 3.59; P = 0.01) or high p-CXCR4 expression (HR, 3.83; P = 0.005) alone. The added prognostic value of low plasma SDF-1 was only effective in patients with high p-CXCR4 expression, and as such, provides clinical validation for modulation of the metastatic potential of tumor cells by an inherent host-derived metastatic risk factor.
Am. J. Pathol. 2009;175(1):66-73.
Pubmed ID: 19497995