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The Cap-Binding Complex CBC and the Eukaryotic Translation Factor eIF4E: Co-Conspirators in Cap-Dependent RNA Maturation and Translation.

Mars JC, Ghram M, Culjkovic-Kraljacic B, Borden KLB

Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer (IRIC), Université de Montréal, Pavillion Marcelle-Coutu, Chemin Polytechnique, Montreal, QC H3T 1J4, Canada.

The translation of RNA into protein is a dynamic process which is heavily regulated during normal cell physiology and can be dysregulated in human malignancies. Its dysregulation can impact selected groups of RNAs, modifying protein levels independently of transcription. Integral to their suitability for translation, RNAs undergo a series of maturation steps including the addition of the m7G cap on the 5' end of RNAs, splicing, as well as cleavage and polyadenylation (CPA). Importantly, each of these steps can be coopted to modify the transcript signal. Factors that bind the m7G cap escort these RNAs through different steps of maturation and thus govern the physical nature of the final transcript product presented to the translation machinery. Here, we describe these steps and how the major m7G cap-binding factors in mammalian cells, the cap binding complex (CBC) and the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E, are positioned to chaperone transcripts through RNA maturation, nuclear export, and translation in a transcript-specific manner. To conceptualize a framework for the flow and integration of this genetic information, we discuss RNA maturation models and how these integrate with translation. Finally, we discuss how these processes can be coopted by cancer cells and means to target these in malignancy.

Cancers (Basel) 2021;13(24).

Pubmed ID: 34944805

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