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From Micro to Long: Non-Coding RNAs in Tamoxifen Resistance of Breast Cancer Cells.

Barazetti JF, Jucoski TS, Carvalho TM, Veiga RN, Kohler AF, Baig J, Al Bizri H, Gradia DF, Mader S, Carvalho de Oliveira J

Post-Graduation Program in Genetics, Department of Genetics, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba 81530-000, Parana, Brazil.

Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer mortality among women. Two thirds of patients are classified as hormone receptor positive, based on expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), the main driver of breast cancer cell proliferation, and/or progesterone receptor, which is regulated by ERα. Despite presenting the best prognosis, these tumors can recur when patients acquire resistance to treatment by aromatase inhibitors or antiestrogen such as tamoxifen (Tam). The mechanisms that are involved in Tam resistance are complex and involve multiple signaling pathways. Recently, roles for microRNAs and lncRNAs in controlling ER expression and/or tamoxifen action have been described, but the underlying mechanisms are still little explored. In this review, we will discuss the current state of knowledge on the roles of microRNAs and lncRNAs in the main mechanisms of tamoxifen resistance in hormone receptor positive breast cancer. In the future, this knowledge can be used to identify patients at a greater risk of relapse due to the expression patterns of ncRNAs that impact response to Tam, in order to guide their treatment more efficiently and possibly to design therapeutic strategies to bypass mechanisms of resistance.

Cancers (Basel) 2021;13(15).

Pubmed ID: 34359587

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