Involvement of the IkappaB kinase (IKK)-related kinases tank-binding kinase 1/IKKi and cullin-based ubiquitin ligases in IFN regulatory factor-3 degradation.
Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Montreal, Montreal, Canada.
Activation of the innate arm of the immune system following pathogen infection relies on the recruitment of latent transcription factors involved in the induction of a subset of genes responsible for viral clearance. One of these transcription factors, IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3), is targeted for proteosomal degradation following virus infection. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this process are still unknown. In this study, we show that polyubiquitination of IRF-3 increases in response to Sendai virus infection. Using an E1 temperature-sensitive cell line, we demonstrate that polyubiquitination is required for the observed degradation of IRF-3. Inactivation of NEDD8-activating E1 enzyme also results in stabilization of IRF-3 suggesting the NEDDylation also plays a role in IRF-3 degradation following Sendai virus infection. In agreement with this observation, IRF-3 is recruited to Cullin1 following virus infection and overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of Cullin1 significantly inhibits the degradation of IRF-3 observed in infected cells. We also asked whether the C-terminal cluster of phosphoacceptor sites of IRF-3 could serve as a destabilization signal and we therefore measured the half-life of C-terminal phosphomimetic IRF-3 mutants. Interestingly, we found them to be short-lived in contrast to wild-type IRF-3. In addition, no degradation of IRF-3 was observed in TBK1(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts. All together, these data demonstrate that virus infection stimulates a host cell signaling pathway that modulates the expression level of IRF-3 through its C-terminal phosphorylation by the IkappaB kinase-related kinases followed by its polyubiquitination, which is mediated in part by a Cullin-based ubiquitin ligase.
J. Immunol. 2006;177(8):5059-67.
Pubmed ID: 17015689